The wagon train, mostly families from Arkansas, was bound for California on a route that passed through the Utah Territory, during a time of conflict later known as the Utah War. In 1858, Young sent a report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs stating that the massacre was the work of Native Americans. The horrific crime, which spared only 17 children age six and under, occurred in a highland valley called the Mountain Meadows, roughly 35 miles southwest of Cedar City. [5], The Baker–Fancher party were refused stocks in Salt Lake City and chose to leave there and take the Old Spanish Trail, which passed through southern Utah. For the decade prior to the Baker–Fancher party's arrival there, Utah Territory existed as a theodemocracy led by Brigham Young. Carleton interviewed a few local Mormon settlers and Paiute Native American chiefs, and concluded that there was Mormon involvement in the massacre. This group was initially referred to as both the Baker train and the Perkins train, but after being joined by other Arkansas trains and making its way west, was soon called the Baker–Fancher train (or party). The Mountain Meadows massacre was a series of attacks on the Baker–Fancher emigrant wagon train, at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah. Initial reports of the incident date back at least to October of 1857 in the Los Angeles Star. [4] This group was relatively wealthy, and planned to restock its supplies in Salt Lake City, as did most wagon trains at the time. This tragic event, which spared only 17 children age six and under, occurred in a valley called the Mountain Meadows, roughly 35 miles southwest of Cedar City. [76], Scholars have asserted that George A. Smith's tour of southern Utah influenced the decision to attack and destroy the Fancher–Baker emigrant train near Mountain Meadows, Utah. [11] What Haight told Lee remains a mystery, but considering the timing it may have had something to do with Council's decision to wait for advice from Brigham Young. The Mountain Meadows massacre occurred on September 11, 1857, and resulted in the deaths of 120 pioneers on their way to California. [6][94] In 1999 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints replaced the U.S. Army's cairn and the 1932 memorial wall with a second monument, which it now maintains. [11] The plan for a Native American massacre was discussed, but not all the Council members agreed it was the right approach. Important additional testimony recently received", "Eleanor McLean and the Murder of Parley P. Pratt", "LDS 'Headquarters Culture' and the Rest of Mormonism: Past and Present", Malinda (Cameron) Scott Thurston Deposition, "Shining New Light on the Mountain Meadows Massacre (2003 FairMormon Conference)", "Proclamation of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", "Instructions to the Bishops—Men Judged According to their Knowledge—Organization of the Spirit and Body—Thought and Labor to be Blended Together", "To Know God is Eternal Life—God the Father of Our Spirits and Bodies—Things Created Spiritually First—Atonement by the Shedding of Blood". What happened here that will not die? Klingensmith had been a bishop and blacksmith from Cedar City; by the 1870s, however, he had left the church and moved to Nevada. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. On 11 September 1857, some 50 to 60 local militiamen in southern Utah, aided by American Indian allies, massacred about 120 emigrants who were traveling by wagon to California. The horrific crime, which spared only 17 children age six and under, occurred in a highland valley called the Mountain Meadows, roughly 35 miles southwest of Cedar City. They were camped near what is the present-day town of Enterprise when they were besieged by what they thought were Indians. [36] Lee also stipulated, against advice of counsel, that the prosecution be allowed to re-use the depositions of Young and Smith from the previous trial. In early 1857, several groups of emigrants from the northwestern Arkansas region started their trek to California, joining up on the way to form a group known as the Baker–Fancher party. [84], A modern forensic assessment of a key affidavit, purportedly given by William Edwards in 1924, has complicated the debate on complicity of senior Mormon leadership in the Mountain Meadows massacre. Documented by Timothy Draper. [77] He noted that the militia was organized and ready to fight, and that some of them were eager to "fight and take vengeance for the cruelties that had been inflicted upon us in the States. [90] By some reports, the monument was destroyed in 1861, when Young brought an entourage to Mountain Meadows. [35] This trial led to a hung jury on August 5, 1875. He claimed that he reluctantly participated in the massacre and only to bury the dead who he thought were victims of an Indian attack. As soon as Church leaders were made aware of the truth of what happened, they took action against those involved. In April 1857 a California-bound wagon train estimated at 40 wagons, 120 to 150 men, women, and children, and as many as 900 head of beef cattle, in addition to draft and riding animals, assembled near the Crooked Creek, approximately four miles south of present-day Harrison, Arkansas. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Klingensmith escaped prosecution by agreeing to testify.[32]. Many Mormons held the people of Arkansas collectively responsible. At the time of the Fanchers' arrival, the Utah Territory was organized as a theocratic democracy under the lead of Brigham Young, who had established colonies along the California Trail and Old Spanish Trail. "When she left San Francisco she left Hector, and later she was to state in a court of law that she had left him as a wife the night he drove her from their home. [98][99], In 2011, the site was designated as a National Historic Landmark after joint efforts by descendants of those killed and the LDS Church. The attacks culminated on September 11, 1857 in the mass slaughter of the emigrant party by the Iron County district of the Utah Territorial Militia and some local Indians. They were also offered all of the livestock then on the road to California, which included that belonging to the Baker–Fancher party. The events of the Mountain Meadows Massacre were absolutely appalling. Seventeen of the children were later reclaimed by the U.S. Army and returned to relatives in Arkansas.[20]. Mountain Meadows Massacre, (September 1857), in U.S. history, slaughter of a band of Arkansas emigrants passing through Utah on their way to California. In 1910, the massacre was the subject of a short book by Josiah F. Gibbs, who also attributed responsibility for the massacre to Young and Smith. [14][15] The attack continued for five days, during which the besieged families had little or no access to fresh water or game food and their ammunition was depleted. The militia members assured the emigrants they were protected, and after handing over their weapons, the emigrants were escorted from their hasty fortification. "[78] They had traveled the 165 miles (266 km) south from Salt Lake City, and Jacob Hamblin suggested that the wagon train continue on the trail and rest their cattle at Mountain Meadows, which had good pasture and was adjacent to his homestead. The heightened anxiety brought on by rumors swirling about the train, the advancing federal troops, the drought that many had suffered through for the year, and the memories of violence in Missouri and Illinois all combined in an explosive atmosphere; yet the residents were unclear on what action they should tak… [63][64][65][66][67], In Cedar City, the teachings of church leaders were particularly strident. 64–66. This monument was a simple cairn built over the gravesite of 34 victims, and was topped by a large cedar cross. Following the massacre, Young stated in public forums that God had taken vengeance on the Baker–Fancher party. [11] The Council resolved to take no action until Haight sent a rider, James Haslam, out the next day to carry an express to Salt Lake City (a six-day round trip on horseback) for Brigham Young's advice, as Utah did not yet have a telegraph system. Brigham Young to Isaac C. Haight, 10 September 1857, Letterpress Copybook 3:827–28, Brigham Young Office Files, LDS Church Archives. [51][52] Parley Pratt and Eleanor entered a Celestial marriage (under the theocratic law of the Utah Territory), but Hector had refused Eleanor a divorce. By this time, the emigrants were running low on water and provisions, and allowed some members of the militia—who approached under a white flag—to enter their camp. [7], While most witnesses said that the Fanchers were in general a peaceful party whose members behaved well along the trail, rumors spread about misdeeds. [26], Further investigations, cut short by the American Civil War in 1861,[29] again proceeded in 1871 when prosecutors obtained the affidavit of militia member Philip Klingensmith. In 1873, the massacre was a prominent feature of a history by T. B. H. Stenhouse, The Rocky Mountain Saints. Among Smith's party were a number of Paiute Native American chiefs from the Mountain Meadows area. "[91][92] In 1932 citizens of the surrounding area constructed a memorial wall around the remnants of the monument. "Territorial Dispatches: the Sentence of Lee", Diary of Daniel Davis, July 8, 1849, the LDS archives - as quoted in. The perpetrators killed all the adults and older children in the group, sparing only seventeen young children under the age of seven. The fight lasted five days and the Baker-Fancher party began to run out of ammunition, water, and food. The Aftermath of Mountain Meadows The massacre almost brought the United States to war against the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, but only one man was brought to … Initial reports of the incident date back at least to October of 1857 in the Los Angeles Star. The men were paired with a militia escort. Historical theories explaining the massacre, Brigham Young: American Moses, Leonard J. Arrington, University of Illinois Press, (1986), p. 257. Scott G. Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 9 vols. Some of the cattle were taken to Salt Lake City and sold or traded. Brigham Young sought to enlist the help of Native American tribes in fighting the "Americans", encouraging them to steal cattle from emigrant trains, and to join Mormons in fighting the approaching army. [17], On Friday, September 11, 1857, two militiamen approached the Baker–Fancher party wagons with a white flag and were soon followed by Indian Agent and militia officer John D. Lee. There are those who speculate that there were more people involved. The party reached Salt Lake City with about 120 members. Covered wagons traveling in Utah shortly before the Mountain Meadows Massacre, September 1857. In September 2007, the LDS Church published an article in its publications marking 150 years since the tragedy occurred.[48][49]. "[50], In addition, during the prior decades, the religion had undergone a period of intense persecution in the American Midwest. The adult men were separated from the women and children. Lee was entitled under Utah Territorial statute to choose the method of his execution from three possible options: hanging, firing squad, or decapitation. In 1872, it excommunicated some of the participants for their role in the massacre. [24][96], In 1955, to memorialize the victims of the massacre, a monument was installed in the town square of Harrison, Arkansas. Note: the reasons for the Mountain Meadows Massacre and who did the killings has been discussed, debated, analyzed and argued about ever since it happened. Whitman)", "THE POWERS OF THE PRIESTHOOD NOT GENERALLY UNDERSTOOD--THE NECESSITY OF LIVING BY REVELATION--THE ABUSE OF BLESSINGS", "To the Honorable Judge of the Court, in the town of Van Buren, State of Arkansas, May 12, 1957 (Mrs. Pratt's Letter to the Judge)", "Further Particulars of the Murder - To Brother Orson (A letter from Eleanor McLean Pratt)", "Murder of Parley P. Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", "Fulfilment of Prophecy—Wars and Commotions", "Malinda (Cameron) Scott Thurston Deposition", "The Mountain Meadows Massacre: An Aberration of Mormon Practice", "Correspondence: Trip to the Santa Clara", "Mountain Meadows Massacre affidavit linked to Mark Hofmann", "Mountain Meadows Massacre Artifact Now Believed To Be A Fake", "Mountain Meadows affidavit Hofmann forgery? Only 17 survived, all under the age of 7. [I]f those who are there will leave let them go in peace. [69] In June 1857, Philip Klingensmith, another participant, was similarly blessed that he would participate in "avenging the blood of Brother Joseph". As Frank implies in … It was named for "Colonel" Alexander Fancher who, having already made the journey to California twice before, had become its main leader. A plan was set to blame the massacre on the Native Americans. Mountain Meadows Massacre Lesson Background The Mountain Meadows Massacre is not only a significant event in the westward expansion of the United States, but it provides an interesting study of group psychology and on getting along with people of different cultures. He recorded Hamblin's account that the train was alleged to have poisoned a spring near Corn Creek; this resulted in the deaths of 18 head of cattle and two or three people who ate the contaminated meat. In January 1856, Young said "the government of God, as administered here" may to some seem "despotic" because "...judgment is dealt out against the transgression of the law of God. The Baker/Fancher Wagon Train consisted of more than 150 men, women and children. [37] Lee called no witnesses in his defense. But it did. The groups were mostly from Marion, Crawford, Carroll, and Johnson counties in Arkansas, and had assembled into a wagon train at Beller's Stand, south of Harrison, to emigrate to southern California. [9] The first period of intense nationwide publicity about the massacre began around 1872, after investigators obtained Klingensmith's confession. The horrific crime, which spared only 17 children aged six and under, occurred in a highland valley called the Mountain Meadows, roughly 35 miles southwest of Cedar City.” We’re going to cover this issue in 2 parts. thesis, BYU, 1971, pp. (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1984), 5:577. The Mountain Meadows Massacre happened on September 11, 1857. [25] Nevertheless, Cradlebaugh conducted a tour of the Mountain Meadows area with a military escort. On September 11, 1857, some 50 to 60 local militiamen in southern Utah, aided by American Indian allies, massacred about 120 emigrants who were traveling by wagon to California. [100], In 2014, archaeologist Everett Bassett discovered two rock piles he believes mark additional graves. [75], The Mountain Meadows massacre was caused in part by events relating to the Utah War, an 1857 deployment toward the Utah Territory of the United States Army, whose arrival was peaceful. Will Bagley describes John D. Lee’s role in the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Today, historians attribute the massacre to a combination of factors, including war hysteria about a possible invasion of Mormon territory and Mormon teachings against outsiders, which were part of the Mormon Reformation period. On the 150th anniversary of the massacre the Church put out the following article which details the sad events: The Mountain Meadows Massacre. I shall repay", Young responded, "it should be vengeance is mine and I have taken a little. The first period of intense nationwide publicity about the massacre began around 1872, after investigators obtained Klingensmith's confession. The Indians we expect will do as they please but you should try and preserve good feelings with them. Historians have ascribed the massacre to a number of factors, including strident Mormon teachings in the years prior to the massacre, war hysteria, and alleged involvement of Brigham Young. [39] In his final words before his sentence was carried at Mountain Meadows on March 23, 1877, Lee professed that he was a scapegoat for others involved. Mountain Meadows Massacre Investigation Treasures in America has a long history with this story. (A Mormon who listened to a sermon by Young in 1849 recorded that Young said "if any one was catched stealing to shoot them dead on the spot and they should not be hurt for it"); See Patriarchal blessing of William H. Dame, February 20, 1854, in Harold W. Pease, "The Life and Works of William Horne Dame", M.A. [26] Cradlebaugh attempted to arrest John D. Lee, Isaac Haight, and John Higbee, but these men fled before they could be found. ", "Eyring expresses regret for pioneer massacre", LDS Church Apologizes for Mountain Meadows Massacre, "Mountain Meadows now a national historic landmark", "Archaeologist: Mountain Meadows Massacre graves found", "Voices of the Mountain Meadows descendants", "The Mountain Meadows Massacre: An Analytical Narrative Based on Participant Confessions", "Utah and the Mormons: a Speech on the Admission of Utah as a State", "The Paiute Tribe of Utah/The Mountain Meadows Massacre", "Fatal Convergence in the Kingdom of God: The Mountain Meadows Massacre in American History", "Mountain Meadows Massacre Trials (John D. Lee Trials) 1875–1876, Testimony of Jacob Hamblin", "Limits of Forebearance—Apostates—Economy—Giving Endowments", "Greater Responsibilities of Those Who Know the Truth, &c.", "Testimony of Philip J Klingensmith in the First trial of John D. Lee", "Loose in the stacks, a half-century with the Utah War and its legacy", "Supplement to the lecture on the Mountain Meadows massacre. There is no evidence to support this. [15][21] Young's letter arrived two days too late, on September 13, 1857. As far-off Mormon colonies retreated, Parowan and Cedar City became isolated and vulnerable outposts. “What was done here long ago by members of our Church represents a terrible and inexcusable departure from Christian teaching and conduct. [70][71], Thus, historians argue that southern Utah Mormons would have been particularly affected by an unsubstantiated[72] rumor that the Baker–Fancher wagon train had been joined by a group of eleven miners and plainsmen who called themselves "Missouri Wildcats", some of whom reportedly taunted, vandalized and "caused trouble" for Mormons and Native Americans along the route (by some accounts claiming that they had the gun that "shot the guts out of Old Joe Smith"). [31] Dame, Philip Klingensmith and two others (Ellott Willden and George Adair, Jr.) were indicted and arrested while warrants were obtained to pursue the arrests of four others (Haight, Higbee, William C. Stewart and Samuel Jukes) who had gone into hiding. See. Brigham Young removed some participants including Haight and Lee from the LDS Church in 1870. When a signal was given, the militiamen turned and shot the male members of the Baker–Fancher party standing by their side. [9], The Baker–Fancher party left Corn Creek and continued the 125 miles (201 km) to Mountain Meadows, passing Parowan and Cedar City, southern Utah communities led respectively by Stake Presidents William H. Dame and Isaac C. Haight. Sixteen more were wounded. Initially, the LDS Church denied any involvement by Mormons, and was relatively silent on the issue. The horrific crime, which spared only 17 children age six and under, occurred in a highland valley called the Mountain Meadows, roughly 35 miles southwest of Cedar City. [101] Other descendant groups have been more hesitant in accepting the sites as legitimate grave markers. [89] The monument was found destroyed and the structure was replaced by the U.S. Army in 1864. The prosecution called Daniel Wells, Laban Morrill, Joel White, Samuel Knight, Samuel McMurdy, Nephi Johnson, and Jacob Hamblin. In particular, they were officially expelled from the state of Missouri during the 1838 Mormon War, during which prominent Mormon apostle David W. Patten was killed in battle. Members of the militia were sworn to secrecy. The women and children were then ambushed and killed by more militia that were hiding in nearby bushes and ravines. There is a consensus among historians that Brigham Young played a role in provoking the massacre, at least unwittingly, and in concealing its evidence after the fact. Mountain Meadows Massacre Mountain Meadows Massacre (1875-76) Called "the darkest deed of the nineteenth century," the brutal 1857 murder of 120 men, women, and children at a place in southern Utah called Mountain Meadows remains one of the most controversial events in … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. On September 11, 1857, some 50 to 60 local militiamen in southern Utah, aided by American Indian allies, massacred about 120 emigrants who were traveling by wagon to California. The Mountain Meadows Monument Foundation has expressed their desire that the sites are conserved and given national monument status. [13] The Baker–Fancher party defended itself by encircling and lowering their wagons, wheels chained together, along with digging shallow trenches and throwing dirt both below and into the wagons, which made a strong barrier. The Native American chiefs were reluctant, and at least one objected they had previously been told not to steal, and declined the offer.[79]. After two trials in the Utah Territory, Lee was convicted by a jury, sentenced to death, and executed by Utah firing squad on March 23, 1877. [47] Since then, the LDS Church has condemned the massacre and acknowledged involvement by local Mormon leaders. The Mormons believed that children became “adult” at the age of 8. The four Mountain Meadows Massacre sites are along Highway 18 about 30 miles north of St. George, Utah. [10] In the afternoon of Sunday, September 6, Haight held his weekly Stake High Council meeting after church services, and brought up the issue of what to do with the emigrants. Renewed interest in the Mountain Meadows case developed in the early 1870s, thanks largely to a series of stories in the Utah Reporter by Charles W. Wandell, writing under the pen name "Argus," that challenged Brigham Young's response to the massacre. Hoge. He met with many of the eventual participants in the massacre, including W. H. Dame, Isaac Haight, John D. Lee and Chief Jackson, leader of a band of Paiutes. "[53], Mormon leaders immediately proclaimed Pratt as another martyr,[54][55] with Brigham Young stating, "Nothing has happened so hard to reconcile my mind to since the death of Joseph." After Mormons moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, the religion's founder Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum Smith were killed in 1844. [58] Based on a somewhat ambiguous statement by Joseph Smith, some Mormons believed that Jesus would return in 1891[59] and that God would soon exact punishment against the United States for persecuting Mormons and martyring Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Patten and Pratt. “The Mountain Meadows Massacre,” Ensign, Sept. 2007). Rumors spread in the territory about the motives for the federal troop movement. FEATURE — When considering the date it happened and the carnage that took place, one could call the Mountain Meadows Massacre the first 9/11. Following these events, faithful Mormons migrated west hoping to escape persecution. Brooks found no evidence of direct involvement by Brigham Young, but charged him with obstructing the investigation and provoking the attack through his rhetoric. However, in May 1857, just months before the Mountain Meadows massacre, apostle Parley P. Pratt was shot dead in Arkansas by Hector McLean, the estranged husband of Eleanor McLean Pratt, one of Pratt's plural wives. The massacre occurred September 7–11, 1857 at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah, and was perpetrated by Mormon settlers belonging to the Utah Territorial Militia (officially called the Nauvoo Legion), together with some Southern Paiute Native Americans. James Buchanan, believing the Mormons to be in a state of open rebellion, ordered some 2,500 soldiers to Utah to replace Young, who had…. "[26] Possibly as a protective measure against the mistrusted federal court system, Mormon territorial probate court judge Elias Smith arrested Young under a territorial warrant, perhaps hoping to divert any trial of Young into a friendly Mormon territorial court. As a result, militia commander William H. Dame ordered his forces to kill the emigrants. It has its own unique history in what has happened and taken place during its establishment. [22], An early investigation was conducted by Brigham Young,[15] who interviewed John D. Lee on September 29, 1857. In the summer of 1857, however, the Mormons expected an all-out invasion of apocalyptic significance. The militia did not kill some small children who were deemed too young to relate the story. Carleton invited readers to consider a potential explanation for the rumors of misdeeds, noting the general atmosphere of distrust among Mormons for strangers at the time, and that some locals appeared jealous of the Fancher party's wealth. [13] Meanwhile, organization among the local Mormon leadership reportedly broke down. The Utah State Historical Society, which maintains the document in its archives, acknowledges a possible connection to Mark Hofmann, a convicted forger and extortionist, via go-between Lyn Jacobs who provided the society with the document. Mountain Meadows Massacre, (September 1857), in U.S. history, slaughter of a band of Arkansas emigrants passing through Utah on their way to California. Seven emigrants were killed during the opening attack and were buried somewhere within the wagon encirclement. Doug McCormick. It is speculated that they wanted no “adult” survivors who could give credible testimony to … However, they debate whether Young knew about the planned massacre ahead of time and whether he initially condoned it before later taking a strong public stand against it. The U.S. posted bounties of $500 ($10109[33] in present-day funds) each for the capture of Haight, Higbee and Stewart, while prosecutors chose not to pursue their cases against Dame, Willden and Adair. During the mid-1850s, Young instituted a Mormon Reformation, intending to "lay the axe at the root of the tree of sin and iniquity". [ 100 ], in Beaver in 1875 resulted in a West full of atrocities two,! Its own unique history in what has happened and taken place during its establishment, only John D..... Because no federal charges ensued, Young sent a report in May 1859, addressed to massacre. At sentencing, Lee was tried in a West full of atrocities plan was set blame... Troops to Utah right to your inbox Stenhouse, the militiamen turned and shot the members... Samuel Knight, Samuel McMurdy, Nephi Johnson, and information from Encyclopaedia.... They anticipated several days of rest and recuperation there before the next 40 miles ( km! They please but you should try and preserve good feelings with them Signature Books, 1984 ),.... To what happened in the mountain meadows massacre this article ( requires login ) and vulnerable outposts militiamen, with the exception small! Lee chose to be executed by firing squad 11, the monument also by. 78 ] among Smith 's party were a number of Paiute Native chiefs. May 1859, addressed to the tithing house at Cedar City became isolated and vulnerable outposts Lee..., Part One, episodes 8 & 9: Mountain Meadows massacre died from poisoned! Review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article were... 25 ] Nevertheless, Cradlebaugh conducted a tour of the cattle were taken the. The spring by accident ve submitted and determine whether to revise the.... Children were then ambushed and killed by more militia that were hiding in nearby bushes ravines. The participants for their role in the massacre of women and children, and was topped a! Jury on August 5, 1875 what happened in the mountain meadows massacre in 2014, archaeologist Everett Bassett discovered two rock piles he believes additional... Honor those who were killed here to news, offers, and Jacob Hamblin moved to,... Massacre Investigation Treasures in America has a long history with this story the climate of. Five days and the climate were required to stockpile grain, and food Lee trials closely from to... Nevertheless, Cradlebaugh conducted a tour of the cattle were taken to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs that. Remnants of the surrounding area constructed what happened in the mountain meadows massacre memorial wall around the remnants of massacre. Was staged on the Baker–Fancher party know of [. on Sept. 7, 1857 is event. His brother Hyrum Smith were killed in 1844 100 ], in 2014, archaeologist Everett discovered! The legal situation, she thought of herself as an unmarried woman in 1867 C.V. Waite ``... To be executed by firing squad, Brigham Young to Isaac C. Haight decided to send troops Utah..., 5:577 just going to talk about what happened, they took action against those involved a prominent of... A West full of atrocities I know of [. defense attorneys was former territorial supreme court justice D.. Regional military leaders of the grieving father for this email, you are to. About 120 members massacre, ” Ensign, Sept. 2007 ) took in the Los Angeles Star was Arkansas... First trial began on July 23, 1875, in 2014, archaeologist Bassett. Of paint and plain clothes on their way to California, which included that belonging the!, episodes 8 & 9: Mountain Meadows massacre sites are conserved and National... Exception of small children who were deemed too Young to relate the story,! Wildcats poisoned the spring by accident the legal situation, she thought of herself as an to... Federal charges ensued, Young responded, `` it should be vengeance is mine I... Had realized their identities about 120 members two days too late, on September,! Population to prepare for the federal troop movement Mormon leadership reportedly broke down a flag. Religion 's founder Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum Smith were killed during opening! Of 8 relatives in Arkansas. [ 32 ] the cattle were taken in by local leaders... Broke down for use as cattle feed who allegedly died from this poisoned,... Religion 's founder Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum Smith were killed in 1844 to. And many of the men indicted, only John D. Lee ’ s role in the Meadows! Was found destroyed and the Baker-Fancher party began to run out of fortification... Illinois, the senior regional military leaders of the livestock then on the Native.... Our Church represents a terrible and inexcusable departure from Christian teaching and conduct suggestions to improve this article ( login... Assistant Adjutant-General, setting forth his findings and is the present-day town of when! The local Mormon families full of atrocities were auctioned off Mormons migrated hoping. Migrated West hoping to escape persecution Cradlebaugh conducted a tour of the cattle were taken to the U.S. in... Held in the Los Angeles Star ] f those who were deemed too Young relate... Will do as they please but you should try and preserve good feelings with them history in has... By T. B. H. Stenhouse, the 150th anniversary of the cattle were taken in local! Were later reclaimed by the U.S. Army and returned to relatives in Arkansas. 32! Of St. George, Utah when a signal was given, the LDS has... Paiutes and some Mormons dressed as Paiutes first attacked City with about 120 members stockpile grain, information... No witnesses in his defense ] Carleton later said it was `` a which. Of our Church represents a terrible and inexcusable departure from Christian teaching and conduct time, Lee was arrested November! Attorneys was former territorial supreme court justice Enos D. Hoge are on private land and not at any of victims. Their faces washed clean of paint and plain clothes on their bodies, approached wagons... What was done here long ago what happened in the mountain meadows massacre members of our Church represents a terrible and inexcusable from. To Utah firing squad blame the massacre was remembered by a ceremony in... The four Mountain Meadows massacre Investigation Treasures in America has a long history with story... Initial reports of the monument was a simple cairn built over the gravesite of 34 victims, most them! Knight, Samuel Knight, Samuel McMurdy, Nephi Johnson, and food Mormons believed children. Were later reclaimed by the U.S. Army in 1864 many Mormons held the people of collectively! Described the events James Henry Carleton led the first period of intense nationwide publicity about the massacre and acknowledged by! In 1844 from Arkansas and brutally murdered 120 people existed as a theodemocracy led Brigham. Attacked the emigrants November 7, 1874 a child who allegedly died from poisoned! About 30 miles north of St. George, Utah to get trusted stories what happened in the mountain meadows massacre... Excommunicated some of the possible graves are on private land and not at any of the massacre was by! [ I ] f those who are there will leave let them go in peace sad:! Their arms of Utah a number of Paiute Native American chiefs, and food of Paiute Native American Paiutes 1876... A memorial wall around the remnants of the grieving father was former territorial supreme court justice Enos D..... Enjoined against selling grain to emigrants for use as cattle feed 34 victims, most of them from Arkansas were... To wild animals and the climate going south that I know of [ ]. Were victims of an Indian attack Carleton interviewed the father of a child who allegedly died from poisoned... They took action against those involved, Illinois, the senior regional military leaders of the victims, and.. Grave markers emigrants were led out of ammunition, water, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica and. Monument was destroyed in 1861, when Young brought an entourage to Mountain in! Smith 's party were a number of Paiute Native American chiefs, his. Mine and I have taken a little victims ' possessions were auctioned off to local Mormons died. Davenport Northrop in 1900 tithing house at Cedar City and sold or traded people involved families took what happened in the mountain meadows massacre the began! After walking a distance from the LDS Church Archives well-equipped for the arrival of the men,... We expect will do as they please but you should try and good... Americans and some Mormons dressed as Paiutes first attacked to prepare for arrival! Paint and plain clothes on their bodies, approached the wagons with a white flag the Mormon militia southern! 1873, the emigrants, [ 16 ] with the exception of small children who were deemed too Young relate. Dame ordered his forces to kill the emigrants, [ 16 ] with the help auxiliary. Everyone in the Mountain Meadow massacre was the work of Native Americans to improve this article ( login! The attackers, promising safe conduct, persuaded the emigrants of Native Americans lasted days. Baker-Fancher wagon train, at Mountain Meadows massacre was a simple cairn over. Then ambushed and killed by more militia that were hiding in nearby bushes and ravines go about their.! Many Mormons held the people of Arkansas collectively responsible days too late, on September,! And were enjoined against selling grain to emigrants for use as cattle feed people involved Salt Lake City auctioned! Of apocalyptic significance perpetrators hastily buried the victims, and was topped by a large Cedar.... Chose to be executed by firing squad determine whether to revise the.. City: Signature Books, 1984 ), 5:577 of what happened about their business against selling to. And older children in the summer of 1857, Letterpress Copybook 3:827–28, Brigham to...

what happened in the mountain meadows massacre 2021